Organisation Des Nations Unies Pour L'alimentation Et L'agriculture

  • Les conflits entre les humains et la faune sauvage existent depuis l'aube de l'humanité. En Afrique, ces conflits sont devenus plus fréquents et plus graves au cours des dernières décennies en raison de l'augmentation de la population humaine, de l'extension des infrastructures routières et du développement de l'agriculture et des activités industrielles. La présente publication a été réalisée pour faciliter la coexistence entre les humains et la faune sauvage et aider les communautés affectées par les conflits à appliquer de bonnes stratégies de gestion. Cet ouvrage qui met l'accent sur les grands herbivores et carnivores expose la problématique générale, décrit différentes méthodes de gestion des conflits et présente un cadre décisionnel en trois étapes. Cette publication, finalisée lors d'un atelier rédactionnel organisée par la FAO et la Fondation internationale pour la sauvegarde de la faune (Fondation IGF) en janvier 2008, est destinée aux populations locales, aux paysans, aux gestionnaires de la faune, aux acteurs du développement et aux chercheurs, aux autorités locales, régionales et nationales, ainsi qu'à tous ceux qui souhaitent en savoir plus sur le sujet.

  • Le Congrès Mondial sur Le Génie Rural pour un Monde Meilleur s'est tenu en septembre 2006 à Bonn (Allemagne) et a été organisé en collaboration avec la Division des infrastructures rurales et des agro-industries de la FAO, avec la Commission Internationale de Génie Rural (CIGR), avec la Société Européenne des Ingénieurs Agricoles (EurAgEng), et avec l'Association Max-Eyth pour le Génie Rural dans le cadre de l'association des ingénieurs allemands (VDI-MEG). Afin de se préparer aux défis du 21ème siècle, la FAO a dirigé 2 ateliers lors de ce Congrès. Le premier avait pour thème principal défis pour une mécanisation agricole dans l'Afrique Subsaharienne et le deuxième s'attachait à l'utilisation de la technologie dans un souci de valorisation et d'amélioration de la qualité. La FAO est un médiateur expert de l'industrie agro-alimentaire, ainsi que des technologies de production et de transformation. Il est à noter en particulier, que le programme des agro-industries de la FAO insiste de plus en plus sur l'approvisionnement pertinent d'intrants sur l'innovation et sur le développement des chaînes de valeur. Dans ces secteurs, les améliorations ont le potentiel de faciliter l'accès des producteurs aux marchés, et d'augmenter les possibilités de soutenir et d'améliorer la vie et le bien-être à quelque niveau que ce soit dans le monde. Ce Rapport Technique contient les résultats du Congrès, et encourage les lecteurs, ainsi que les personnes amenées à prendre des décisions, à tenir compte du rôle important des technologies dans le secteur technique pour le développement et bien entendu pour un monde meilleur.

  • This document presents guidelines for governments on the development of fertilizer strategies. It illustrates the difference before and after the involvement of the private sector and offers solutions for improvement. It discusses the role of fertilizers in the development of agriculture along with the factors that have an impact on their use by farmers, gives practical suggestions for decision-makers regarding production or import of ferilizers and then deals with the many issues involved in the efficient distribution and marketing of fertilizers and, finally, with the institutional framework for the integration of all these aspects into a comprehensive fertilizer policy.

  • This publication aims to create awareness and prompt action amongst policy-makers and practitioners to address the impact of climate change (notably changes in temperature and rainfall) to the country's food security. It serves as a good example of how the ongoing FAO and Government of Lesotho project activities Environment, are complementing identified by the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) on climate change. The publication would be a useful resource to policy-makers, development partners and field practitioners on documenting and identifying viable community-based response and practices in climate change adaptation.

  • In the first half of 2008, the world was facing the highest food price levels in 30 years and a global food insecurity crisis. Although international food prices have since fallen, they are still above the levels seen in recent years and are expected to remain so. FAO estimates that soaring food prices pushed another 115 million people into chronic hunger in 2007 and 2008, bringing the world total to nearly one billion hungry people. This report explains why food prices increased and the steps needed to ensure that high food prices become an opportunity for developing country farmers to help safeguard world food supplies at affordable prices. It focuses on the extent to which new explanations - biofuel demand, record oil prices and increasing food demand in China and India - can account for the sudden food price inflation as well as the role of traditional market drivers. It also explores why so few producers in developing countries responded by investing more and increasing production. The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2009 aims to bring to a wider public an accessible discussion of agricultural commodity market issues and policy matters. It seeks to provide an objective and straightforward treatment of economic issues for all those interested in agricultural commodity market developments and their impact on developing countries. Also published in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish.

  • Les femmes participent de manière considérable à l'économie rurale dans toutes les régions en développement. Si les rôles qu'elles assument sont différents selon les régions, on observe toutefois partout qu'elles ont un accès plus restreint que les hommes aux ressources et aux débouchés qui leur permettraient d'être plus productives. Un meilleur accès des femmes à la terre, aux animaux d'élevage, à l'instruction, aux services financiers et de vulgarisation, aux technologies et au marché de l'emploi rural se traduirait par une nette augmentation de leur productivité et par une amélioration de la production agricole, de la sécurité alimentaire, de la croissance économique et du bien-être social. Si l'écart qui sépare les hommes des femmes était comblé seulement en ce qui concerne les intrants agricoles, ce seraient environ 100 à 150 millions de personnes qui échapperaient à la faim. Il n'y a pas de solution passe-partout pour supprimer cet écart. Il existe en revanche quelques principes élémentaires universels à suivre à ce sujet:
    Les gouvernements, la communauté internationale et la société civile doivent travailler de concert pour supprimer la discrimination légale, promouvoir l'accès de tous aux ressources et aux marchés, garantir que les politiques et programmes agricoles favorisent l'équité hommes-femmes et donner voix au chapitre aux femmes, qui sont des partenaires du développement durable au même titre que les hommes. Parvenir à l'égalité hommes-femmes en permettant aux femmes d'être des intervenantes à part entière dans le secteur de l'agriculture n'est pas seulement juste.
    C'est aussi primordial pour le développement agricole et pour la sécurité alimentaire.

  • Agriculture is the mainstay of the economies of developing countries and the source of livelihood for the majority of their populations. Toward this aim, improved seeds have been widely recognized as a key ingredient for enhancing farm productivity and overall crop production. This publication aims at raising the awareness of decision makers and provides guidelines of best practices and policy options for promoting and supporting the growth and development of smallholder seed enterprises.

  • Can biofuels help achieve energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, promote rural development? Do biofuels threaten land, water, biodiversity, and food security? The State of Food and Agriculture 2008 surveys the current status of the biofuel debate, exploring implications for food security, the environment and agricultural development in developing countries. It addresses the biophysical and economic potential of biofuels, global and local environmental impacts, agricultural commodity prices impacts, and implications for agricultural development, poverty and hunger. It also explores policy options to ensure positive outcomes for people and the environment. Also published in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish.

  • This publication provides emergency practitioners with the basic technical information about seeds, necessary for planning and implementing seed relief interventions. It defines the main seed quality attributes and describes the standard testing and sampling methodologies. Maintaining seed quality in emergency situations is a key issue and therefore the main factors of seed quality deterioration are presented, including handling and storage. Basic principles of seed production are described to assist emergency practitioners in seed sector rehabilitation. International regulations affecting seed production and trade are also discussed. Finally, key concepts of seed security assessment are provided, as well as the different types of seed relief interventions.

  • This paper reviews case studies on smallholder seed enterprises in Brazil, Côte d'Ivoire and India, as well as relevant world literature in order to identify key issues that facilitate or constrain the development of the seed factor. The final section provides some guidelines on policy design and implementation to promote the development of sustainable seed enterprises at different stages in the evolution of national seed factors. It provides examples of good practices and hence seeks to assist governments in identifying ways in which they can support the development of smallholder seed enterprises that will provide the most appropriate varieties to smallholder farmers in their efforts to boost food production.

  • The objective of this publication is to offer a reference material for extensionists, professors, agronomy students, technicians in general, and for farmers themselves. Through information that is up-to-date and richly illustrated, it strives to facilitate the adoption and diffusion of No-Tillage, the use of green manures, and the practice of crop rotation on small farms. The publication describes the principal species of green manures and, at the same time, informs in detail how to insert green manures into small farm production systems according to soil fertility and major crops. It also analyzes the economic implication of these practices.

  • This book profiles 13 contributions by some of the world's most active scientists on the subject of measuring soil carbon in grassland systems and sustainable grassland management practices. While many different aspects of carbon sequestration in grasslands are covered, many gaps in our knowledge are also revealed, and it is hoped that this book will promote discussion, prompt further research, contribute to develop global and national grassland strategies and contribute to sustainable production intensification.

  • Women make significant contributions to the rural economy in all developing country regions. Their roles differ across regions, yet they consistently have less access than men to the resources and opportunities they need to be more productive. Increasing women's access to land, livestock, education, financial services, extension, technology and rural employment would boost their productivity and generate gains in terms of agricultural production, food security, economic growth and social welfare. Closing the gender gap in agricultural inputs alone could lift 100-150 million people out of hunger. No blueprint exists for closing the gender gap, but some basic principles are universal: governments, the international community and civil society should work together to eliminate discrimination under the law, to promote equal access to resources and opportunities, to ensure that agricultural policies and programmes are gender-aware, and to make women's voices heard as equal partners for sustainable development. Achieving gender equality and empowering women in agriculture is not only the right thing to do. It is also crucial for agricultural development and food security.

  • One aspect of the social pillar of sustainable forest management, which has so far received little attention at the policy level, is the forest workforce. Sustainable forestry requires a sustainable work force. Very often small enterprises face major challenges in terms of occupational safety and health and economic viability as they lack string structure of cooperation and mutual support. A team of specialist, under the integrated programme of UNECE Timber Committee and FAO, was set up to address this issue. This guide is based on European and North American conditions, but many of its suggestions are applicable elsewhere.

  • Les biocarburants menacent-ils la sécurité alimentaire ? Permettront-ils de réduire les gaz à effet de serre ? Peuvent-ils aider à promouvoir le développement agricole ? La Situation mondiale de l'alimentation et de l'agriculture 2008 fait le point sur le débat en cours sur les biocarburants, examine les données tangibles qui existent sur ces questions fondamentales, et en décrit l'impact sur la sécurité alimentaire, sur l'environnement et sur le développement agricole dans les pays en développement. Le rapport fait aussi le point sur les politiques permettant de réduire les risques associés aux biocarburants, et de partager plus largement les avantages qu'ils offrent. Publié également en anglais, en arabe, en chinois, en espagnol et en russe.

  • FAO's Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010) shows that 80 percent of the world's forests are publicly owned, but forest ownership and management by communities, individuals and private companies are increasing (FAO, 2010c). Globally, State ownership and management dominate forest tenure, but transitions are under way - more in some countries than in others. A more diversified tenure system could provide a basis for improving forest management and local livelihoods, particularly where State capacities to manage forests are weak. This publication provides practical guidance for policy-makers and others concerned with addressing forest tenure reform.

  • One of the keys to successful agricultural development in Asia and Latin America has been mechanization. By contrast, the use of tractors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has actually declined over the past forty years and, compared with other world regions, their use in SSA today remains very limited. It is critical to ensure food security for the entire population but feeding the increasing urban population cannot be assured by an agricultural system that is largely dominated by hand tool technology. In order to redress the situation, FAO, UNIDO and many African experts are convinced that support is urgently needed for renewed investment in mechanization. This must, however, be done in the right way, taking into account critical factors for success and sustainability. This report summarizes the deliberations of the Round Table Meeting of experts with the intention of providing guidance on the key strategies and good practices for maximizing the benefits and sustainability of investments in agricultural mechanization in Africa.

  • Forest and energy are at the centre of the global debate on climate change. Soaring energy consumption and prices, and increasing greenhouse gas emission, represent a major opportunity and challenge for the forestry sector to find a new role in energy supply, climate change and sustainable development. This publication will be useful to both specialized and general audiences interested in learning more about the role of forests in energy production (Also published in Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish).

  • The articles in this issue deal with state and public sector land management, and consist of case studies from various geographical settings.

  • This booklet focuses on promoting transport and traction services as viable diversification enterprises for smallholder farmers and other in rural areas. It considers the benefits that can arise from such enterprises, not only for smallholders themselves, but also to local communities in overall terms through increased productivity, improved and faster marketing, better mobility and reduced drudgery.

  • Conflicts between humans and wildlife have occurred since the dawn of humanity. In Africa, these conflicts have become more frequent and severe over recent decades as a result of human population growth, extension of transport routes and expansion of agricultural and industrial activities which together have led to increased human encroachment on previously wild and uninhabited areas. With a focus on large herbivores and carnivores such as elephant, lions and crocodiles, this book presents the issues, describes different methods of conflict management and outlines a three-step framework for decision making. This publication will be of interest to villagers, farmers, wildlife practitioners, development workers and researchers, to local, regional and national authorities, and ultimately to anybody keen to learn more about the issue.

  • Land consolidation can be an important tool for increasing agricultural competitiveness and improving rural conditions. This publication addresses the policy implications of using new instruments introduced by the European Union (EU) to support land consolidation, in EU Members and neighbouring countries. It describes the available funding options and makes recommendations for including land consolidation within a rural development programme.

  • This is the seventeenth edition of the Agricultural Outlook. This report provides world market trends for biofuels, cereals, oilseeds, sugar, meats, dairy products and, for the first time, the fisheries sector over the 2011-20 period. This edition also includes an evaluation of recent developments, key issues and uncertainties in those commodity markets. The projections are the result of close co-operation with national experts in OECD and non-OECD countries. A jointly developed modelling system, based on the OECD's AGLINK and on the FAO's COSIMO models, facilitates consistency in the projections. In the context of the G20 discussions on agriculture, a section of the report is devoted this year to the policy responses to price volatility.

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